CDM is one of the major GHG programs in the compliance carbon market and includes the GHG reduction projects implemented in developing countries by developed countries. “Gold Standard” and “VCS” are among the major GHG programs of the voluntary carbon market. They include voluntary GHG reduction projects in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency.
Validation and verification activities are compulsory for CDM, Gold Standard, and VCS and are carried out by accredited DOEs. The CDM-related DOE accreditation process involves both management system requirements and practical validation/verification experience. The validation and verification bodies accredited by the CDM’s Executive Board can also validate and verify GHG reduction projects listed under Gold Standard and VCS.